Wednesday, August 31, 2011

A Pressure Transducer that Can Handle Just About Anything

Author: Wika

Have you ever had a pressure transducer succumb to high pressure, extreme heat, or cold? Have you had an application fail because a pressure transducer did not live up to its expectation? WIKA offers the R-1 as the latest generation of pressure transducers using thin-film and thick-film ceramic technologies for refrigeration and air conditioning systems.

The R-1 pressure transducer is tested using strict protocols designed specifically for the refrigeration and HVAC industry. It meets or exceeds all test requirements including resistance to icing, heating, high pressure steam jets, internal condensation, submersion, and dust tightness.

Image Captions (Left to Right)
  • Heat cycling: -15°F to +140°F to EN 60068-2-38
  • Dust resistance: Ingress Protection IP6X according to EN 60529
  • Submersion: 15PSI at 75°F for 30 minutes
  • Freeze / thaw cycling: 40°F to 23°F for 240 hours

Image Captions (Left to Right)
  • High pressure steam washdown: Ingress Protection IPX9K to DIN 40050-9
  • Condensation: +115°F ambient at 85% RH, media temp 15°F for 500 hours
Long-Term Integrity
Long-term leak resistance of the R-1 pressure transducer is achieved through the hermetically sealed, welded thin-film sensor and process connection. Elimination of soft sealing materials removes the need for additional material compatibility testing and eliminates the chance of long term leaks developing due to seal deterioration.

Refrigeration & AC System Overview
With the rapid increase in energy costs, energy efficient refrigeration and HVAC systems are essential. If operating your plant’s refrigeration systems involves a significant electricity expense, WIKA presure transducers for refrigeration and air conditioning can significantly reduce energy consumption when used in conjunction with a PLC based control system. Permanently installed pressure transducers make it simple to monitor the performance of your system and identify any problems that may occur.

The photograph at right is an example of a refrigeration application for which the WIKA R-1 pressure transducer would be used.

Description of a typical refrigeration cycle
  • Step 1: Beginning at the compressor, the refrigerant is compressed and leaves the compressor as a high temperature, high pressure gas.

  • Step 2: The hot refrigerant enters the condenser, which is usually fan forced air cooled; then the refrigerant leaves the condenser as a warm liquid and continues on to the thermal expansion valve.

  • Step 3: The expansion valve meters the proper amount of refrigerant into the evaporator.

  • Step 4: The sudden pressure drop after the expansion valve converts the high pressure warm liquid refrigerant into a low pressure, cold gas. The cold gas absorbs ambient heat from fan forced air passing through the evaporator. This ambient heat converts the refrigerant into a cool dry gas. From here the refrigerant reenters the compressor to be pressurized again and the cycle repeats.

  • The diagram below shows a typical refrigeration cycle. Image modified from Natural Resources Canada
    Pressure transducers are used on both the high pressure side and low pressure side of the compressor to control and optimize the cycle.

    Low refrigerant charge in a refrigeration system is detected by monitoring the compressor’s discharge of pressure and temperature. This monitoring is accomplished with a WIKA pressure transducer located at or near the compressor outlet. Output signals from the pressure transducer are sent to a PLC. When a high discharge temperature with a low discharge pressure is detected, the PLC provides a low charge signal. The PLC can also receive input about additional operating characteristics of the refrigeration system to provide a more accurate low charge signal. The PLC is connected to a warning indicator and compressor so that the low charge signal activates the indicator and deactivates the compressor.
    Refrigeration systems often suffer from hidden equipment faults and inefficient controls. Undetected problems in a refrigeration system can result in high energy costs and shorten the life of the equipment. By installing the proper monitoring equipment and adopting an efficient control strategy, costly problems can be prevented.

    Potential problems
    • Suction line filters keep the refrigerant clean and protect the compressor from taking in debris. If one of the filters becomes clogged, the restricted flow will create a pressure drop in the system. This drop will reduce efficiency and lead to unnecessary costs.
    • Hidden refrigerant leaks can eventually lead to a low refrigerant charge. Repairing leaks can bring about a remarkable performance boost. A low charge can cause efficiency losses and add to annual operating costs.
    • In many refrigeration systems, head pressure stays at a fixed level to assure reliability over numerous temperature ranges. This also assists in maintaining sufficient refrigerant flow, freeze protection for the condenser and an adequate pressure difference across expansion valves.
    The WIKA R-1 pressure transducer is produced on a modern, highly flexible production line which meets the highest quality standards. With the R-1 pressure transducer, WIKA offers absolute reliability at a low cost, without compromising quality, safety or affordability.

    If you would like more information about the Wika R-1 Pressure Transducer or any other Wika Products please contact Forberg Scientific, Inc. Customer Service.
    Toll Free: 855-288-5330

    Monday, August 29, 2011

    GPI Stainless Steel Turbine Liquid Flowmeter: What is it Good For?

    Posted in Industrial Flow Meter Articles: Liquid Flow Meters by GPI on October 14, 2009 

    Edwin Starr’s lyrics in the classic, “War” tell the listener that war is good for “absolutely nothing!” When you talk about flowmeters with your friends, which I am sure all of us do, they probably think the same thing about the topic. Your friends think that flowmeters do absolutely nothing and they often wonder why someone would buy one of these objects.

    If you are not in our industry, it is hard to explain why flowmeters make our universe whole or give us peace of mind. As we all know, flowmeters come in different shapes, sizes, materials, and flow ranges. Books could be written on each topic alone.

    In this GPI informational article we will focus on how to use a stainless steel turbine flowmeter, how it is being used in various industries and other features of this popular meter. Plus, we will have an in-depth look at the GPI G2 Stainless Steel flowmeter.

    A flowmeter that is made of stainless steel is one that does not rust, stain, or corrode easily when compared to other types of flowmeters that are made of different metals such as brass, aluminum etc. This is one of the main reasons why stainless steel turbine flowmeters are so popular. They are rugged meters that can take on some of the harshest chemicals without damage.

    If you are looking for a meter that can sustain high pressure and harsh liquids you need to check out one of these stainless steel meters. The versatility of these meters can be seen in the ways it is used throughout different industries. There are some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) that use the meter for process control of chemicals in some of their applications. These manufacturers enjoy peace of mind by knowing that the chemicals being monitored have a good accuracy reading.

    Manufacturers build these stainless steel turbine flowmeters differently. Some of these flowmeters are bigger, bulkier and the end user has to accommodate for space restrictions to make sure the application has ample room for the height and width of the meter. Other flowmeters are smaller and rugged in design so end users have flexibility when installing them in their applications.

    If you are looking for a flowmeter that can handle some of the harshest conditions stainless steel is the way to go.

    One of the popular uses of a stainless steel turbine flowmeter is to measure chemicals. These meters have excellent chemical compatibility allowing them to measure ammonia and boric acid. Stainless steel turbine flowmeters can take on some very obnoxious chemicals.

    Bruce Patterson, Executive Products Manager at GPI, has over 20 years experience in the field of flowmeters. Patterson says,“ The versatile, stainless steel flowmeter performs great in most applications. These meters are currently used in environmental control, batching and blending of chemicals, temperature regulation, chillers and heaters, and in process control through out different markets.”

    Cutting costs is always a great thing for business because it helps the bottom line. A flowmeter is a tool that can help companies save cash by cutting waste.

    When asked about the potential impact these meters have on the bottom line, Patterson replied,
    “It is a simple equation, the higher the accuracy you have when measuring fluids for your particular application the lower your risk of waste in measurement. Companies that are using this meter along with a batch controller are also in better shape when it comes to potential equipment break downs.”

    Although there are many types of stainless steel turbine flowmeters in the industry let’s concentrate on the features of the GPI G2 Stainless Steel turbine flowmeter. The GPI G2 Stainless Steel turbine flowmeter has a local display with two totals, one is re-settable and one is cumulative. The meter is factory calibrated in gallons and litres.

    The customer wants to calibrate it to their specific fluid the G2 Stainless Steel turbine flowmeter includes two field calibrations and flow rate. The accuracy rate depends on the meter size (see spec sheet here). The ease of repairing the internal parts is very popular with people using this meter. The G2 Stainless Steel flowmeters are plug-and-play ready. If the internals of the stainless steel flowmeters are damaged in use, they are easy to replace. All the user needs to do is take a retaining ring off and remove the damaged internals. Then replace the internals with a new kit. Many users really like this feature because it takes literally minutes to do. This means less down time to their operation.

    This stainless steel turbine flowmeter has about 9,000 hours of battery life. Think about that for a second, which is the equivalent of about 9,000 NFL football games (minus the rest room breaks, beer & chip commercials, and time-outs called). The electronics in the display use Lithium batteries to provide it with the power necessary to run the display.

    One of the best things about GPI G2 Stainless Steel turbine flowmeters is the class one division one rating. In simple English, this classification means that the flowmeter is explosion proof, intrinsically safe, and of the purged/pressurized type. Fancy lingo that lets users know there is no chance the flowmeter will cause a spark if it is used in a hazardous area. This is a great feature for someone wanting to use this meter but has to prove to management that the meter is safe to use in their hazardous application. In some industries they are required to prove that the piece of equipment that is going to be used has been approved by a number of regulatory organizations such as Factory Mutual (FM). Think of this as peace of mind approved.
    CONCLUSIONAs you can see from all this fancy data and the examples, stainless steel turbine flowmeters are good for users who want an accurate, rugged and dependable flowmeter. The only thing that these meters can’t do is start a war like the one on Edward’s song. However, the stainless steel turbine flowmeters can start a price war which wouldn’t be bad for the consumer.

    Hopefully reading this gave you more insight on stainless steel turbine flowmeters in general along with useful information on the GPI G2 stainless steel turbine flowmeter. In the words of John Lennon, “Let us now give stainless steel flowmeters a chance”, okay he didn’t really say that but you get my drift or should I say flow?

    If you would like more information about the GPI G2 Series Flowmeters or other GPI Flowmeters please contact Forberg Scientific, Inc Customer Service Representative.
    Phone: 248-288-5990

    Friday, August 26, 2011

    Instrumentation for Hazardous Environments - Wika Pressure Transmitters

    Wika pressure gauges, especially bourdon tube gauges, can be found worldwide in the field of oil and gas production and regeneration offshore as well as onshore.

    These Wika measuring instruments are manufactured in close co-operation with members of ISO 15156 and NACE committee in accordance with respective latest revision. The bourdon tube and diaphragm pressure gauges have been put to the test in different independent institutions where they were subjected to laboratory tests at different acid gas concentrations related to temperature and time.

    Wika’s IS-2X intrinsically safe pressure transmitters have ATEX/FM/CSA approvals in one device. They are available in a high temperature version as well as a field case version and are SIL 2 rated.

    Pressure switches with bourdon tube measuring systems have a long service life. They are cheap and robust at the same time due to the prevalence of bourdon tubes. The BAX bourdon tube pressure switch has Ex-class protection EEx-d. The housing is IP65 epoxy coated die-cast aluminium and the instrument is available in ranges from 0-40 and 0-600 bar.

    The IS-21-S and IS-21-F transmitters feature a flush diaphragm process connection. They are specifically designed for the measurement of viscous fluids or media containing solids that may clog a NPT process connection.

    Wika's Model IS-20-F and IS-21-F feature an integral stainless steel junction box with internal terminal block for use in extremely harsh environments. A 1/2" NPT female conduit connection is standard on all models and a cable compression electrical con-nection is available as an option.

    All types require a 10 to 30 volt supply provided by an intrinsically safe power supply or through an approved intrinsically safe zener diode barrier.

    If you would like more information about the Wika's Intrinsically Safe Hazardous Area Pressure Transmitters or other Wika items please contact Forberg Scientific, Inc Customer Service Representative.
    Toll Free: 855-288-5330Email:

    Wednesday, August 24, 2011

    UE ONE SERIES low cost mechanical switch

    Forberg Scientific Offers the United Electric ONE SERIES, which has all the reliability of an electronic transmitter, with the ease of use and low cost of a mechanical switch!


    • A reliable, cost-effective solution for upgrading plant instrumentation.
    • Ideal for applications that demand a switch that never needs calibration, has programmable adjustability and 0.1% repeatability.
    • Easily integrated into a safety instrumented system (SIS) that requires a smart-diagnostic switch (FMEDA and SIL verification reports available upon request).

    • Digital process display
    • Programmable set point and deadband
    • Self-diagnostic solid-state digital electronics
    • Plug port detection
    • Nuisance trip filtering
    • Patented electronic IAW self-diagnostics
    • Min/Max process values memory
    • 3-year warranty

    For alarm and shutdown switching applications, there is no better choice than the One Series family of electronic switches from United Electric Controls. Measuring gauge pressure, differential pressure or temperature, the extremely rugged and reliable One Series takes all of the guess-work out of monitoring process variables to prevent injury, loss and downtime. With its large digital display, fully-adjustable deadband, and 100% solid-state design, the One Series is the obvious choice for plant upgrades and new construction projects. A built-in microprocessor includes digital repeatability and intelligent self-diagnostics, offering plant operators an extremely reliable and smart protection device.

    Proven in use in literally thousands of diverse applications, UE has recently developed explosion-proof One Series models, extending this revolutionary switching technology to Zone 1 (Division 1) areas.

    • Pumps and compressors- start/stop, optimizing, shutdown, staging
    • Lubricating oil monitoring- sump temperature, bearing pressure, predictive maintenance
    • Hydraulic oil pressure- high pressure monitoring, emergency shutdown, ram cycling
    • Filter monitoring- automatic backwash, clog and change indication, proving flow
    • Safety systems- safety integrity levels 1 & 2, alarm and shutdown, local switching, fast response time
    Plant upgrades- power and wastewater plant upgrades, drop-in replacement for mechanical switches

    More information about the UE One Series click UE One Series Catalog

    If you would like more information about the UE One Series or other United Electric Controls items please contact Forberg Scientific, Inc Customer Service Representative.
    Phone: 248-288-5330

    Tuesday, August 9, 2011

    Dräger X-zone 5000 Confined Space Monitoring Without Limits

    Area monitoring without limits – the Dräger X-zone 5000. In combination with the Dräger X-am 5000, the X-zone 5000 reliably monitors for up to six hazardous gases and warns at preset levels.This easily transportable, robust and water-proof unit extends mobile gas detection technology to a unique system with many applications.
    The Dräger X-zone 5000 transforms the Dräger X-am 5000 personal gas detection instrument into an innovative area monitoring device for a wide range of applications. A patented combination for increased safety – used with personal gas air monitoring carried on the body or positioned where gas hazards are expected, the X-zone 5000 area monitor knows no limits!

    CLEAR ALARM - 360°
    Even from a distance, the illuminated green LED ring indicates that the air is free of toxic and combustible gases. When gas hazards are detected, the LED changes colors from green to red, providing a clear visual warning that hazardous gas is present. In addition, it emits a loud and audible evacuation alarm. With a patented 360° alarm amplifier, the acoustic warning is heard easily over a wide area, independent of wind direction. The Dräger X-zone 5000 gas entry is arranged so that gas can diffuse into the Dräger X-am 5000 from all sides.

    Up to 25 Dräger X-zones can be automatically interconnected to form a wireless fenceline. This interconnection of the monitoring devices allow for rapid securing of larger area, e.g. leaking pipelines or industrial tanks - or the monitoring required during industrial shutdowns.

    In the event of a gas alarm, the Dräger X-zone 5000 transmits alarm signals to all units that are part of the fenceline which then display a daughter alarm. The original alarming unit shows a red LED along with its audible alarm, while the daughter alarm displays green/red with its illuminated LED ring. This provides fast, easy recognition of the general alarm, while identifying the unit which alarmed originally. This assures a positive alert and a clear and clean evacuation. Alternatively, the fenceline can be wired.

    An optional integrated pump allows monitoring of remote areas by pulling a sample to the device. This provides continuous monitoring of confined spaces and locations which are difficult to access – from a distance of up to 45 m (150 ft).

    Via the potential-free alarm contact, the Dräger X-zone 5000 device can be connected to and operate external equipment such as alarm horns, lamps or traffic lights. In addition, the fenceline signal, along with the alarm contact, can be forwarded to a control room – overseeing a wide range of applications.

    Unlike personal gas detectors, area monitoring devices often stay located within a potentially hazardous area, even during a gas alarm. It is therefore important that the devices are approved for use in explosive hazard areas. The approvals for X-zone 5000 enable the continuous operation of the device in an explosive atmosphere and environment.

    Two different types of rechargeable batteries enable the Dräger X-zone 5000 to be adapted to a variety of applications: the 12 Ah battery unit weighs about 7kg (15 lbs) and offers continuous operation for up to 60 hours. The alternative 24 Ah battery provides up to 120 hours of continuous operation – a complete working week.

    The Dräger X-zone 5000 can be charged in two ways: in the conventional wired manner or via a modern wireless induction charger. With the inductive charge cradle, the device is simply placed into the charger – alleviating the problems encountered with dirty charging contacts, etc. Additionally this non-contact charging possibility also allows maintenance and service to be carried out simultaneously.

    With the Dräger CC-Vision® PC software, the Dräger X-zone 5000 can be configured to meet individual needs and requirements. Alarm volume, visual cadences and frequency can all be adjusted. In addition, X-zones can be grouped to work as teams, so several groups of units can be set up to monitor different areas in close proximity without interfering with each other.

    If you would like more information about the Dräger X-zone 5000 or other Dräger items please contact Forberg Scientific, Inc Process Sales Representative.
    Phone: 248-288-5990

    Thursday, August 4, 2011

    Turck New Rugged, Compact Non-Contact Inductive Sensors Designed for Harsh Environments

    Turck Press Release

    Minneapolis— TURCK announces their Q-track™ family of linear position sensors has been expanded to includet he newest QR14 and the Q17 models. Measuring just 14 mm and 17 mm in height, the compact, non-contact inductive sensors deliver dependable, repeatable measurements in applications with spacing limitations and harsh environments.

    TURCK’s linear inductive sensor operation is based on the RLC resistance inductance capacitance principle.Unlike potentiometric or magnetostrictive technologies, the sensors incorporate precisely manufactured printed emitter and receiver coil systems. The emitter coils are activated with a high frequency AC field and produce an inductive RLC circuit with the positioning element. The element is inductively coupled with the receiver coils,
    which are arranged so different voltages are induced in the coils, depending on the position of the actuator. The voltages serve as a measure for the sensor signal. Q-track sensors deliver maximum measuring spans, with minimal blind zone and high resistance to EMI/RFI noise interference.

    “The low-profile design and rugged housing make the Q-track sensors the preferred choice for versatile linear positioning applications,” said Marty Cwach, Product Manager, TURCK. “Our ability to repackage technology into new housing designs enables us to deliver smaller sensors that suit the widest variety of application and spacing requirements.”

    Superior to alternative technologies, Q-track sensors’ innovative design, linearity and repeatability eliminate common performance failures experienced with other technology options. The RLC principle of operation used in the Q-track linear position sensor is highly immune to noise interference and is inherently weld field immune. Since the position element does not contain a magnet, it can be used in metal working applications because it will not attract ferrous debris, which would affect the operation of a magnetostrictive sensor. Additionally, the inductively coupled position element provides non-contact position feedback ideal for use in applications with constant motion, such as pinch rollers, cylinder position, web tension control, pitch control, resisting damage and costly downtime.

    Along with their advanced design features, the sensors’ compact, durable construction increases functional flexibility. The QR14 and Q17 include both current and voltage outputs, eliminating the need for two separate sensors and offering greater convenience and cost efficiency. The fully potted and sealed IP67-rated housing protects against moisture and dust in demanding environments.
    To receive more information on Turck please contact Forberg Scientfic customer service:
    Phone: 855-288-5990

    Wednesday, August 3, 2011

    Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty

    From: Endress+Hauser

    Reading values from dials and taking measurement with devices is fairly standard procedure in any process. What we frequently neglect to consider is the fact that what we read does not necessarily match reality

     For various reasons, any measure is affected by errors. An experimental measurement can only be correctly interpreted if it is associated with an estimate of the probable error called 'measurement uncertainty'.

    Metrology, the science that pertains to the theoretical and practical aspects of measurement tasks, is what we use to master the consequences of this uncertainty. In terms of quality management, industrial metrology involves managing the preparation and execution of measurement tasks in order to guarantee the measurement results, their traceability and their uncertainty.

    Metrology is underutilized in industry because it is generally approached from the perspective of statistics or from the perspective of quality, but rarely from the perspective of its usefulness for the process.

    But the real question concerning measurement uncertainty should be:
    • What impact does it have?
    • And how can the measurement be improved overall?
    Take the case of a technician who, when performing an annual calibration, regularly finds values that are 'borderline' or even out of tolerance. Quite logically, he will make the decision to calibrate the device every six months instead.

    While this decision is sure to cost the company more, its efficacy will in no way be certain. This is because the device must always be considered within the context of the measurement or calibration procedure.
    For calibration services, many manufacturers must rely on a trusted outside specialist. Continuously developing standards in compliance with international norms such as ISO 17025, best practices in statistics and metrology, the service teams at Endress+Hauser are able to provide not just calibration, but also all of the materials and methods necessary to ensure the quality of the calibration service. On site or at one of the Group's many laboratories.

    The extended article on industrial metrology and calibration can be read in our latest Maintenance Today #6 "Minimizing maintenance effort with maintenance, calibration and lifecycle solutions"

    Forberg Scientific, Inc is now Endress+Hauser Authorized Service Provider (ASP) for Michigan and Northern Ohio.

    Service can be scheduled by calling Forberg at 248-288-5990 Email: or Endress+Hauser at 800-642-8737. With offices in Troy, Michigan, Cleveland, Ohio, and Grand Rapids, Michigan, Forberg Scientific has the resources and experience to meet your every need.